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Bigtooth Aspen

  1. Bigtooth Aspen
  2. Populus grandidentata
  3. borers and caterpillars, leaf spots and cankers along with other pathogens
  4. Mainly bugs, but also used by the beaver for food and construction; birds also eat its bark, buds, and twigs
  5. in a section of aspens called Salicacea family; 5 typical aspens
  6. Mainly used to make pulp, but also is used for rough construction
  7. Medium textured with a gray brown color, buds are pointed with a red brown to gray color
  8. Native to PA, populates the Northeast, and the Great Lakes Region
  9. bigtooooothaspen.jpg


Flowering Dogwood

  1. Flowering Dogwood
  2. Cornus florida
  3. most severly impacted by dogwood blight, a fungus disease
  4. Squirrels and Birds eat the small red fruits
  5. has two subspecies, cornus florida subsp florida (Eastern US and Southeastern Canada), and cornus florida subsp urbania (Eatern Mexico)
  6. Used for golf club heads, wooden rake teeth and butcher blocks
  7. marked with rings, red tinged with green in color, often with a bluish white powdery coating, flower at end of twig
  8. Native to PA, widely populates the North and Southeastern states
  9. White%20Flowering%20Dogwood.jpg


Create an Organism

This organism you will find:
has lots of legs and a small mind.
Known commonly to us as Aves Vulgaris
It lives in the canopy of an endangered rain forest.
It is hard to see and difficult to catch
but when you do beware of its grip.
It uses its many legs to scale the trees
and goes after both animals and leaves.

Catalase Activity


1. Discuss your results from the activity, discuss your analysis of the activity from the spreadsheet (what did you learn, what was surprising, what connections can you make between temperature and enzyme activity and the presence of catalase in certain foods?) --From this activity, I found that Egg Whites and Egg Yolks contain little or no catalase(enzyme found in most plant and animal cells that functions as an oxidative). It was suprising to me that both the egg white and egg yolk contain no catalase. The connections that I can make between temperature and enzyme activity is that enzymes will react more in a warmer liquid because of the stimulation they get when they are awoken by the heat molecules rapidly moving around in the liquid. And if the food has a high presence of catalase, then the enzymes will go into overload and foam and bubble. Although, some foods such as the liver performed the same in all three categories; so the reaction that the catalase has has a lot to do based on just the type of food that it is. One source of enzymes is the liver, which needs to break down many substances in the body. Catalase is one enzyme from liver that breaks down harmful hydrogen peroxide into oxygen gas and water. When this chemical reaction occurs, you can see the oxygen gas bubbles escaping and causing the reaction to foam. --

  1. Show the chart that you created. --Above ^^

  1. Develop a question about the catalase activity. Create a quality question about enzymes or enzyme action, etc. Either research to find the answer or use available materials to experiment to find the answer. If you research, list your sources. If you experiment, outline your experiment and explain your results.
Question: Does a food have to be high in a certain chemical i.e. protein, fats, etc.. in order to get a higher catalase reaction?
-- One food that is high in all enzymes, proteins, and other vitamins and nutrients is liver. Liver contains enzymes that are necessary to break down the hydrogen peroxide in our bodies. So, when tested for catalase it has a high reaction as it contains a lot of enzymes. So the answer to my question is basically yes, that a food that is higher in proteins and other substances will have a higher catalase reaction.

Biomolecules Activity

--As you can see, the biomolecules present in Egg Yolk are proteins and fats.
--As you can see, the biomolecules present in Egg Whites are proteins.

1. What kinds of biomolecules are in each of the food substances you tested?
--There are proteins and fats in the Egg Yolk. And in the Egg White there are proteins.


2. Do certain biomolecules have the same catalase reactions? Explain.
--Yes, certain biomolecules will have the same catalase reaction. Reguardless of the type of food, what matters is the type of biomolecules in that food. For example, when comparing the apple and the onion they both showed the presence of simple sugars and proteins. In order to show this, the biomolecules must have reacted the same in each test. So, we can say that biomolecules will react the same way even though they are located in different foods. Basically, the only reason food has an effect on the different reactions is because there are different biomolecules in different types of food.

3. What other results did you observe in the class that can be used to make a statement of what you have learned?
-- I also observed that certain biomolecules in food react in different ways due to the fact of the concentration of biomolecules in that food. For example, ground beef has a high concentration of proteins and fats, which makes it react differently then the onion which has a very low to no concentration of proteins and fats. So, the reactions that occur are due to the concentration of biomolecules and the temperature at which they are tested.

Biomolecules Webquest

1. Explain how heat affects the rate of reaction.
--Heat affects the rate of reaction by speeding it up.

2. Explain how surface area affects the rate of reaction.
--Surface area affects the rate of reaction by slowing it down.

3. Explain how concentration affects the rate of reaction.
--Concentration affects the rate of reaction by slightly slowing it down and making the molecules bounce off each other more often.

1. What types of molecules make up enzymes?
--Protein molecules make up enzymes.

2. What determines the function of an enzyme?
--The reaction that an enzyme has determines its function.

3. What is denaturing?
--Denaturing is when extreme temperature or pH changes the shape of an enzyme molecule and causes it to make the enzyme less useful of even useless.

4. Describe how a reaction takes place without an enzyme and then with an enzyme.
--A reaction takes place with an enzyme by finding two molecules that will fit into it, after they are attached to the enzyme, then a bond is formed. That new double molecule then leaves the enzyme and that enzyme remains unchanged and is ready to help two more molecules to react.
--A reaction takes place without an enzyme by the two molecules coming together at just the right angle in order to create a bond. This process is long, and the molecule could bounce off each other for a long time before they come together at the right angle.

5. Explain how you think an enzyme might speed up a reaction.
--An enzyme might speed up a reaction by helping molecules that need to come together to form a bond by doing it faster and in a more efficient manner. It basically is the lock for the particular two molecules and the molecules are the key. Once that key is in place then it can unlock the enzymes ability and open the door for the bond to happen.

6. Explain why you think enzymes are so particular about reactions.
--Enzymes are so particular about reactions because in order to help the reaction take place with a certain molecule, then that enzyme has to have the ability to do it correctly. If enzymes were not particular about their reactions, then there would most likely be a problem with the reaction that is taking place, and not carry out its intended function.

7. How is the shape of an enzyme important?
--The shape of an enzyme is important because it determines the shape of the molecules that will be able to connect with it, and then in turn will help those molecules react and form a bond.

8. Explain how you know an enzyme is reusable.
--An enzyme is reusable because of the fact that when molecules connect to it, they then leave after they form a bond and the enzyme that helped it form a bond remains unchanged, so it can be used again by another set of molecules.

9. How does heating an enzyme affect its function?
--Heating an enzyme affects its function by first speeding it up, and then when it is heated too much, denaturing could occur which could kill the enzyme or make it not do its job properly.

10. Does heating a reaction always have the same effect? Explain.

--No, heating a reaction doesn't always have the same effect because a certain reaction could have a different concentration that a other reaction, causing them to have different effects.

1. Explain the difference between hydrolysis and condensation (dehydration).
--Hydrolysis is when polymers break down into monomers, and condensation is when 2 monomers are put together to make a polymer.

2. Which molecules from our labs undergo these reactions?

-- The molecules from out labs that undergo these reactions are proteins, carbs, lipids, and nucleic acids.

1. What are proteins made of?
--Proteins are made of amino acids. There are twenty amino acids in all. 12 of the twenty amino acids are considered the essential amino acids. The other eight can be made by your body.

2. What chemical process creates the proteins?
--The chemical process that creates proteins is known as a condensation reaction(A condensation reaction is a chemical reaction in which two molecules or moieties (functional groups) combine to form one single molecule, together with the loss of a small molecule). Ribosomes catalyze this reaction between the amino acids. It is also known as dehydration synthesis.

3. Describe how proteins are made in detail. Sketch a picture.

--Proteins are made by amino acids coming together to form a peptide bond. There are many different possible combinations for these amino acids to come together. Once they come together, a condensation reaction occurs that is catalyzed by ribosomes. Then, the polypeptide chain is formed (50-5000 amino acids) and a functioning protein is formed.
1. First, 3 amino acids and a ribosome are found,
2. Then, through condensation reaction the 3 amino acids are put together and they each lose one water molecule.
3. Then, the polypeptide chain is formed through the peptide bond and a protein is formed.

1. Describe step by step how your body breaks down carbohydrates. Make sure to specify the function of each organ during the steps.

-- First, food is taken in through the mouth and the saliva in the mouth helps break down the carbohydrates in the food into glucose. Then, it travels to the stomach where it will start to be broken down by acidic gastric juices. The food stays in the stomach until the environment in the stomach becomes too acidic. From there, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose in the small intestine and are absorbed into the bloodstream. Then, when the glucose is in the bloodstream, it wants to go into a fat or muscle cell. If that cell is "closed" then the glucose remains in the blood stream and a rise of glucose is detected in the body. When that rise in glucose is detected, the pancreas pumps insulin into the bloodstream to try and regulate levels. The insulin that is now in the bloodstream "opens" the fat or muscle cells that were previously closed and lets the glucose into those cells. The pancreas then detects a fall of glucose in the bloodstream and shuts off the making of insulin. And then the stored glucose can be used as energy for the cell and the entire body.

1. How is fat digested? How is this different from carbohydrates? Be sure to discuss the organs, substances, and enzyme responsible.
-- Fat is digested by bile. Bile is a substance that is produced by the liver and stored and released by the gallbladder. Basically, bile is a substance that is known with its molecules that has a dual nature. Dual meaning two in this case, the molecules digest the fat by putting themselves between the water and the fat since one half of the molecule is attracted to fats and the other half of the molecule is attracted to water. When the molecules places itself between the water and fat, when it does this the fat droplets remain suspended in water rather than merging with it. This process is also called emulsification. This digestion process is different from carbohydrates because in fat digestion there are less organs involved in the process of digestion. Also, carbohydrates can be burned fairly easily, but fats cannot.

1. How do heart attacks occur?
--Heart attacks occur when blood flow to a section of a heart becomes blocked. If that block isn't fixed rather fast then that part of the heart becomes damaged and beings to die due to lack of oxygen. A blockage would be caused by CAD, or coronary artery disease. This disease occurs when a fatty material called plaque builds up along the walls of the coronary arteries which are the arteries that supply blood to heart. When this plaque layer becomes larger, it can rupture causing a blood clot to form on the surface of the plaque. If this clot becomes large enough, it can block the flow of blood to the heart, and therefore cause a heart attack.

Describe in your own words using any of the images from the above link and draw a picture that describes proteins (do not copy and paste from images):
    1. Primary structure- the linear structure of amino acids that is linked by a peptide bonds that forms a polypeptide chain.
    2. Secondary structure- the three-dimensional form of local segments such as polymers and nucleic acids.
    3. Tertiary structure- the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in a single polypeptide chain.
    4. Quarternary structure-the arrangement of multiple folded proteins in a multi-subunit complex.

Photosynthesis Webquest

1. What is photosynthesis?
-Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and other photoautotrophs generate carbohydrates and oxygen from carbon dioxide, water, and light energy in chloroplasts; synthesis of compounds with the aid of radiant energy (especially in plants).

2. What types of organisms carry out photosynthesis? List 3 groups.
-The types of organisms that carry out photosynthesis are plants, algae, and many species of bacteria.

3. What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis? What is the translation for the chemical equation?

6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Carbon dioxide + Water + Light energy → Glucose + Oxygen

4. Look at your equation in number 3 and answer the following questions:
a. What are the raw materials or reactants needed to carry out photosynthesis?
-Carbon dioxide and Water
b. What are the products of photosynthesis?
-Glucose and Oxygen
c. What energy source is needed in the reaction?
-Light Energy

5. Consider a plant as the photosynthetic organism.
a. In what part of the plant does photosynthesis occur?
-Photosynthesis occurs in the plants chlorophyll. It mainly occurs in the leaves of plants, very little happening in the stems.
b. What specific cells are involved?
-The specific cells that are involved are in chlorophyll.
c. What specific organelle is involved?
-The specific organelle that is involved are the chloroplasts. These organelles hold the chlorophyll where all the activity takes place.

6. How does the plant get the raw materials needed for photosynthesis to the plant part where photosynthesis occurs?
-The plant gets the raw materials needed for photosynthesis by absorbing the water throough the plants roots, and then carbon dioxide is diffused through the stoma.

7. What is a stoma and of what value is the stoma to the plant in its efforts to carry out photosynthesis?
-A stoma is a minute epidermal pore in a leaf or stem through which gases and water vapor can pass. A stoma is very important to the plant because it lets oxygen out of the plants and also intakes the materials that are needed for photosynthesis such as carbon dioxide and water.

8. Explore the organelle that is responsible for the process of photosynthesis. What are found inside the organelle and how do these parts aid in the process of photosynthesis?
-The organelle that is responsible for the process of photosynthesis are the chloroplasts. The things that are found in these organelles are the stroma, and the thylakoids that are stacked in grana. The chlorophyll is built into the membranes of the thylakoids. They aid in the process of photosynthesis by converting the light energy from the sun to chemical energy that the plant can use.

9. What is the first part of photosynthesis called and where does it occur?
-The first part of photosynthesis is called the light dependent reaction. It occurs in the thylakoid.

10. What exactly happens in the first part of photosynthesis?
-In the first part of photosyntheis, light energy is converted into chemical energy in the forms of ATP and NADPH.

11. What is the second part of photosynthesis called and where does it happen?
-The second part of photosynthesis is called the Calvin Cycle. It happens in the stroma.

12. What happens in the second part of photosynthesis?
-In the second part of photosynthesis, carbohydrates are formed.

13. Are the two parts of photosynthesis connected? If so, explain the connection.
-Yes, the two parts of photosynthesis are connected because the light energy that is converted in the first part fuels the second part of photosynthesis and the dark reaction.

14. Does the chemical equation that you listed in number 3 tell the entire story of the process of photosynthesis? Why or why not?
-No, the chemical equation listed in number 3 does not tell the entire story of the process of photosynthesis because photosynthesis doesn't actually produce glucose, it produces a 3-carbon compound which is a precursor(a substance from which another substance is formed (especially by a metabolic reaction)) to glucose. Also, different plants will utilize different chemical pathways in different situations. So, it basically depends on the chemical pathway a plant has to take, and the type of plant.

Light Intensity Activity

Homework: Create a data table that outlines % maximal ATP, ATP created in your time frame used, light intensity, and wavelength. You can also take screen shots while it is in action and display your data in a graph or other ways if desired.

Research background information about
  • light intensity
  • wavelength and energy
  • pigment colors

Explain the following:
  • how wavelength and light intensity is important for photosynthesis. Be certain to completely relate these to the light reaction and what you observed in the simulation.
  • A summary of what you learned through the simulation. You can discuss using paragraphs, data tables or pictures (include a brief statement as well).

Light Intensity- candlepower:luminous intensity measured in candelas; Several measures of light are commonly known as intensity. These generally are obtained by dividing a power, in watts, (or apparent power, in lumens) by a solid angle, a planar area, or a combination of the two; the amount of light.

Wavelength- Light travels in waves varying in length. The measurement of a light wave is from the top of one wave to the top of the next one and is usually measured in units of nanometers (nm) or Angstroms (A) ; Light can be thought of as an electromagnetic wave. Like a wave on a string, the electromagnetic wave has a "wavelength", which is the distance it travels in one oscillation.

Energy- a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs.

Pigment Colors- A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light.

--Wavelength and light intensity are important for photosynthesis because they both are both necessary in photosynthesis. If the light intensity is not good, or non existent then photosynthesis does not occur and the plant will not get food, just like in the simulation we did in class. Also, wavelength is important because if the wavelenthgth of light isn't good and doesn't travel far enough into the plat then photosynthesis will not occur properly or or not deep enough, causing the plant to wilt or die.

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--In this activity, I learned that photosynthesis is more active in plants that sit in brighter light. I also learned that the higher the light intensity, the greater the wavelength, and in both cases the greater the wavelength and the light intensity caused the ATP to rise, which in the terms of photosynthesis it would mean that photosynthesis would be more active and be making more food for the plant.

Respiration Activity

Academic Biology
Glucose metabolism questions

1. What is the primary source of energy for the cell?
--The primary source of energy for the cell is ATP, which is made by burning glucose.

2. How does the cell produce a continual supply of energy?
--The cell produces a continual supply of energy by the process of cellular respiration, which is breaking down glucose slowly, to slowly release the energy.

3. What places in the cell does cellular respiration occur?
--Cellular respiration occurs in the cytoplasm and the mitochondria.

4. What is the first phase of respiration called and where does it occur?
--The first phase is glycolysis and it occurs in the cytoplasm.

5. Describe the products made in glycolysis.
--The products made in glycolysis are 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate acid, and 2 ATP molecules, these all aid to produce energy.

6. What two pathways does pyruvate take after glycolysis? What conditions allow it to happen each way?
--When oxygen is present cellular respiration occurs.
--When oxygen isn’t present fermentation occurs.

7. If oxygen is available, discuss the changes in pyruvate and the products created. What is this process called?
--When oxygen is available, metabolism is eventually created through the process of the Krebs Cycle. Two Carbon molecules are created along with the two NADH molecules.

8. Discuss the events in the electron transport chain.
--In the electron transport chain, energy pumps protons into their inner membrane space, then the protons flow through the enzyme ATP synthrose, which releases the energy.

9. How many ATP are produced from the complete breakdown of glucose in oxygen?
--A total of 36 ATP are produced in the complete breakdown of glucose in oxygen.

10. What are the two electron carriers called?
--The two electron carriers are called NAD and FAD.

11. How is fermentation similar to glycolysis?
--Fermentation is similar to glycolysis because they both inadvertently lead to the production of energy.

12. How is fermentation different from glycolysis?
-- Fermentation does not use oxygen to produce energy, while glycolysis does. Also, they both have different results. At the end of glycolysis you are left with pyruvate, at the end of fermentation, you have ethanol and lactic acid.

13. Give 3 example of fermentation.
i. Ethanol fermentation – leads to methanol
ii. Lactic Acid fermentation – leads to lactose into lactic acid – yogurt
iii. Alcohol fermentation – leads to alcohol

14. How are the photosynthesis and respiration equations related?
-- They both use Carbon Dioxide and water, they also both share the equation C6H12O6 and 6O2, which in respiration is glucose (sugar) and photosynthesis sugar. Also, they are opposites.

15. Why are fats such a good source of energy? (Note: this needs to be related to ATP)
-- Fats are a good source of energy because there are more calories in them, which makes ATP productivity increase, and ATP is energy.

Exercise and Cell Respiration

What are telomeres? What is the relationship between telomere length and exercise?
--Telomeres are regions of repetitive DNA at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from destruction. The relationship between telomere length and exercise is that as the amount of exercise increases, so does the length of the telomere.

Besides making your body a better machine, what are the obvious benefits of exercise?
--The obvious benefits of exercise are that it makes you look better, makes your muscles stronger, reduces the chance of a heart attack, and many other things.

One article suggests "Some research suggests that exercise can reduce levels of inflammation and free radicals,". What does this mean?
--This means that with exercise, the level of inflammation in your body goes down because the anti-oxidants in your body basically "kills" the free radicals before they can damage molecules that will cause inflammation.

Physical inactivity has been associated with what medical problems?
--Physical inactivity has been associated with coronary artery disease, obesity, high blood pressure, high trigylcerides, and diabetes.

What changes happen in the body as you start to exercise? (not outward changes, but what the body does to adjust to your exercising).
--When you begin to exercise your body adjusts by building muscle mass, losing fat, and changing your metabolism accordingly.

How does aerobic exercise affect the circulatory and respiratory systems?
--Aerobic exercise affects the circulatory and respiratory systems by improving the air flow in the respiratory systems and thus causing your circulatory system to function better and pump more oxygenated blood in a more timely manner.

How does anaerobic training benefit the body?
--Anaerobic training benefits the body by promoting strength in the body.

How does aerobic exercise and weight training affect the heart differently?
--Aerobic exercises strengthen the heart and make it healthier and more able to pump blood efficiently, while weight training will tone and build muscle it won't affect the heart nearly as much as aerobic exercise will.

How do muscles adapt to aerobic training and weight training?
--Muscles adapt to aerobic training and weight training by becoming larger, therefore becoming stronger and able to lift more weight as time goes on.

How does exercise affect the resting heart rate?
--Exercise affects the resting heart rate by raising it up. The normal resting heart rate for a woman is about 70-80 beats per minute; when exercising it can get up to about 155 or even 200.

How does exercise affect blood pressure?
--Exercise affects blood pressure by lowering it because when you exercise, your heart becomes stronger and it has an easier time pumping blood throughout your body.

How does exercise affect the way fat is utilized by the body?
--Exercise affects the way fat is utilized in the body by being used first when your cells need energy along with glucose.

Does exercise reduce the number of infections? Why?
--Yes, exercise can reduce the number of infections because exercise has a positive immune system response and a temporary boost in the production of macrophages, which makes the cells attack bacteria.

How does exercise affect the body composition (ratio of muscle to fat)?
--Yes, exercise affects the body composition of ratio of muscle to fat, by reducing the amount of fat and increasing the amount of muscle.

What is meant by cardiovascular fitness and what does it mean?
--Cardiovascular fitness is when your heart is fit, it is able to do the things you want to do such as running, or sports. It is health-related component of physical fitness that relates to ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply oxygen during sustained physical activity.

What are the three types of activities and their benefit?
--The three types of activities are endurance, flexibility, and strength training. Their benefits are with endurance it allows you to do something for longer periods of time, flexibility allows you to move comfortably and be able to maneuver in a quick fashion, and strength training allows you to be able to lift more weight and make your muscles stronger.

How does exercise affect the development and progression of diabetes?
--Exercise affects the development and the progression of diabetes by greatly reducing your chance for diabetes if you don't already have it and if you already have diabetes it can improve your insulin sensitivity level and lower your blood sugar.

What is a metabolic myopathy, what does it cause, and how is it treated (or managed and lived with)?
--Metabolic myopathies are Myopathies that result from defects in biochemical metabolism that primarily affect muscle. It causes defects in the muscles, and it is managed by doing activities that will cause episodes of rhabdomyolysis.

How does arsenic interfere with ATP production?
--Arsenic interferes with ATP production by disrupting the electron transport chain and inhibiting the production of ATP.

Yeast Analysis

1. State 2 clear, concise conclusions derived from the analysis of the results from the experiments in your class.
--The more sugar that comes into contact with the yeast, the more gas the yeast would produce.
--Yeast can become active with as little as 3% sugar.

2. What was the dependent and independent variables in the experiment? Explain.
--The independent variable was the gases produced.The dependent variables were the sugar water and the yeast.

3. According to the experimental data, what kind of environment do yeast prefer? How did the sugar concentration change the result? Explain.
--Yeast prefer warm, moist environments. The more sugar that was present gave the yeast more energy to produce more gas.

4. How did the amount of rising change with the different types of sugar solutions used?
--The higher percent of sugar present created a greater circumference of the balloon that was placed on top of the test tubes.

5. What kind of respiration did the yeast carry out in the experiment? Explain.
--The yeast carried out anaerobic respiration because the yeast didn’t require oxygen to go through the process of fermentation.

After 10 Minutes Circumference = 12cm

After 20 Minutes Circumference = 12.3cm

Compared to 5% (green)

Compared to 10% (orange)

Compared to 10% (orange)

The beginning of the experiment.

After 10 minutes..

After 20 minutes...

Compared to 5% (Green)

DNA Replication Model

Pink= Adenine
Orange= Thymine

Light Blue= Guanine
Dark Blue= Cytosine


The Steps of DNA Replication

1. The double helix structure is unwound by the helicase enzyme creating a replication fork, or two single stranded DNA's. On that replication fork, DNA processes happen simultaneously on each prong. Proteins are then collected in one part of the cell and the DNA is basically "fed" through them all opposed to them moving along the DNA strand.

2. The proteins then cover the DNA strand and prevent it from annealing into a double strand. Then, the DNA polymerase enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the two halves together.

3. From there,both sides of the original DNA gets new sugar, phosphates and bases, with A always matching up with T, and C always matching up with G. Depending on which way you look at it, the original left side could get a new right side, and the original right side could be getting a new left side but since there are two sides to DNA and it is in a helix structure it is hard to tell.
---The DNA replication happens in the stage of interphase during mitosis.

1. Telomeres--are basically the endcaps on the end of the chromosomes that protect various chromosomes from being stuck together.
2. Okazaki Fragments-- a section of a complementary 5'-->3' strand that becomes stitched together by DNA ligase
3. DNA Ligase-- stitches together the okazaki fragments.
4. Telomerase-- is an enzyme that adds telomere repeat sequences to the 3' end of the DNA strands.
5. Cancer-- many types of cancer arise from somatic cells and are able to divide indefinitely.
6. Transplanted Cells-- are cells that are removed from a patient, then a substance that the patient is unable to synthesize is added to the cells, and last the cells are put back into the patient.
7. Cloning-- uses a nucleus from another organism, and then cells from another organism that have been growing in cultures.
8. Aging-- after cells age, then the division rate becomes slowed, and the telomeres shrink, therefore cutting the lifespan short for those cells.

Cell Portfolio

--This photo makes the most sense when viewed with Sam's.

Genetic Variation

--Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome