The Rockettes: Tori, Kelsey, Caroline, and Maija Kelsey and Tori

Prokaryote


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A prokaryote has two different kinds: bacteria and archaea. They are a simpler cell compared to the eukaryote, it lacks a nucleus, nucleolus, and many other organelles.

Prokaryote Cell: Bacillus-Kelsey

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This is a picture of prokaryotes attached together to form a rod. If they were broken up, they would have a cylindrical shape like the diagram above.
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Bacillus not attached: image from:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bacillus_subtilis_Gram.jpg



Eukaryote


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The two kinds of eukaryote cells are plant and animals. They are much larger and complex compared to the prokaryotes.

Eukaryote: Frog Tongue-Tori


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image by flickr user: shivsons.com

This cell is a eukaryote because you can see the yellowish nucleus and a mitochrondria. Only an eukaryote has these organelles, a prokaryote does not.


Compare and Contrast


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Information from:
http://www.invive.com/cells.html
http://aventalearning.com/courses/BIOx-CR-A09/a/unit3/section1_05.html

Question

Why are plant cells and animal cells different?
Animal and plant cells are different even though they are both classified as eukaryotic cells. Plant cell’s wall is made up of cellulose because this is needed for the plant cell to absorb liquids through osmosis. An animal cell does not have a need to be filled with a liquid and it does not have a cell wall. An animal has a skeleton to support the body of that organism. A plant does not have one, yet it is not limp. The cell wall is what gives the plant its structure. A plant cell also goes through a process called photosynthesis, which converts sunlight to food. An animal does not need this process, for it can eat their food. A plant and animal cell are different because they are used in different ways.

Information from:
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-differences-between-plant-and-animal-cells.htm
http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/13-cells.htm




kelsey

Caroline and Maija
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Caroline and Maija

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Eukaryote cells have a nucleus and a nuclear envelope. Most organisms have Eukaryote cells, including animals, plants, and fungi.

Prokaryote cells are in lack of a nucleus, and a cell membrane. These cells are divided into two domains: the bacteria, and the archaea.

Eukaryote Cell: Frog Blood

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File:Ostreococcus RCC143.jpg
File:Ostreococcus RCC143.jpg

This cell does have a nucleus, which means that it is a eukaryote, and not a prokaryote.

Prokaryote Cell

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This cell does not have a nucleus, which means that this cell is a prokaryote and not a eukaryote.


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Question


Where did the names prokaryote and eukaryote originate from?

Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic got their names from a Greek word "Karyose" comes from a which means "kernel," as in a kernel of grain. "Pro" means "before," and "eu" means "true," or "good." So "Prokaryotic" means "before a nucleus," and "eukaryotic" means "possessing a true nucleus."
good

Cheek Cell

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46.75 microns: The cheek cells were the largest of all the cells we studied. It has a rounded shape. With the idodine, it has a visible nucleus.


Elodea With Salt Water

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37.5 microns: It has a rectangular shape and in a certain pattern. The chloroplast is visibly shown in the cell. Compared to the planin elodea, the cells shrunk.


Elodea-Plain


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25 microns: The cell wall and cell membrane are visibly seen. The cells are rectangular shape and are in a certain order.


Onion With Iodine


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31.25 Microns In the onion cell, the cell wall, nucleus, and cytoplasm are visible due to the iodine. The cells are rectangular in shape.


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ElodeaCells.png
CheekCells.png

Apple Cells


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Apple cells are 125 microns,

Celery Cells

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Celery cells are 93.75 microns


How do we know that the apple and celery are made of cells?
To begin our experiment we took a small slice of apple and a small slice of celery and put them on a wet slide. To the apple we added a drop of iodine and to the celery we added metylene blue to make cells easier to view if there indeed were cells. As we placed them under the microscope, we found cells! We identified nuclei, cell walls, chloroplasts, and cell membranes indicating that the apple and celery were indeed made of cells. As you look at the pictures above you can see the identified cell organelles.

hi

MIcrotubules and Cytoskeleton

by Kelsey and Tori
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hi

Vacuole & Vesicle


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smile...

Cell Transport

Vocabulary:
  • Diffusion-movement of molecules down their concentration
  • Osmosis-water moves through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of its higher concentration to a region of its lower concentration
  • Hypotonic-a solution with a lesser solute concentration that another, a hypertonic solution
  • Hypertonic-a solution with a greater solute concentration than another, a hypotonic solution
  • Isotonic-solutions of equal solute concentration
  • Solute-A substance that is dissolved in a solution
  • Solvent-liquid substance that is able to dissolve another, such as a solid
  • Selectively permeable-a property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others
  • Water potential-the physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure
  • Concentration gradient-A regular increase of decrease in the intensity or density of a chemical substance. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of H+ ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
  • Plasmolysis-A phenomenon in walled cells in which the cytoplasm shrivels and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall when the cell loses water to a hypertonic environment.
  • Turgor-the force directed against a cell wall after the influx of water and the swelling of a walled cell due to osmosis
  • Active transport-The movement of a substance across a biological membrane against its concentration or electrochemical gradient, with the help of energy input and specific transport proteins.
  • Facilitated diffusion-The spontaneous passage of molecules and ions, bound to specific carrier proteins, across a biological membrane down their concentration gradients


Procedure:
For this experiment we used a potato, a beaker with regular tap water, a beaker with salt and water solution, a beaker with a salt and iodine solution, a ruler, and a scale. We took the potato and cut it into three rectangles with 2.5x2x1cm dimensions. Then we weighed each piece of potato, they all weighed 5.2 grams. We then filled each beaker to 200 ml with a different solution. We waited 12 minutes before taking the potatoes out. We then weighed each potato and measured them. The potato in the tap water was 2.6x2.1x1 cm and weighed 5.4 grams. The potato in the salt water solution was 2.2x1.9x.9cm and weighed 4.1 grams. The potato in the iodine and water solution was 2.6x2.1x1cm and weighed 5.1 grams.

Analysis:
1.Osmosis is the movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from a region of its higher concentration to a lower concentration. On the other hand, diffusion is the net movement of molecules down their concentration gradient. Diffusion can occur in gases, liquids, or solids.
Both diffusion and osmosis occur inside of a cell, and move from a high concentration to a low concentration. Also they are both a part of passive transport, which means that they occur without requiring the cell to use energy. Osmosis works because of isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic.
2.Diffusion and Osmosis are considered to be a passive process because energy is not required from the cell. Also they work with a concentration gradient high to low. Heat can cause diffusion to go faster.
3.
Passive transport does not require any energy input from the cell for movement to occur. However active transport requires energy from the cell for any movement to occur. Passive transport works with the concentration going from high to low, and active works with the concentration going from low to high. Carrier proteins are used in both processes.
4.
How can we be sure that the molecules are being diffused throughout the water? We can perform an experiment to determine that this is true, by placing a tea bag into water, and watching the tea diffuse through out the water evenly.

Potato Patoto

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Osmosis


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Osmosis is when water move across a permeable membrane into a cell. The potato that performed osmosis was in regular tap water. The potato absorbed the water, and plumped up, just as a cell would in the act of osmosis. After 12 minutes of being in the water, the potato grew from 2.5cm to 2.6cm in height. The potato also got .2 grams heavier, changing from 5.2 grams to 5.4 grams.

Diffusion

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Diffusion is water moving from a high concentration to a low concentration. The potato in the salt water performed diffusion. The salt absorbed the water that was already contained inside the potato. This caused it to get smaller. It decreased from 2.5cm to 2.2cm in height. It also went from 5.2 grams to 4.1 grams.


Height= 2.5
Length=2
Width=1

Mass=5.2 grams

200Ml of regular, salt, and iodine water


Iodide. 5.1g height 2.6 length 2.1 width 1
Salt water 4.1g height 2.2 length 1.9 width .9
Regular 5.4g height=2.6 length 2.1 width 1

Light Intensity Activity


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100% ATP found at:
Light intensity: 200
Wavelength: 425
Number of ATP: 10


The best possible condition for making maximum ATP?
Highest Light intensity and low wavelength.

Yeast Respiration Lab Results:

10 min:
3 cm of bubbles.
13 cm circumfrance
radius: 4.13
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15 min:
3.1 cm of bubbles
14.4 cm circumfrance
radius:4.58
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20 min:
3.6 cm of bubbles
14.6 cm circumfrance
Radius: 4.64
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Comparison:
3% group:
12.3 cm circumfrance
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10% group:
11 cm circumfrance
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Aerobic/Anaerobic Venn Diagram

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DNA Testing


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According to this gel pad, suspect two was the criminal who committed the crime. We concluded this because in lanes 5 and 7 the DNA of suspect two (5) and the DNA found at the crime scene (7) equally matched as they rose higher than the rest of the evidence.

Mitosis Activity

Order:
8-2-3-9-12-15-4-1-7-10-14-6-13-5-11

Prophase-8-2-3-9
Metaphase-12-15-4-1
Anaphase-7-10-14-6
Telophase-13-5
cytokinesis-11