MY BLOG


ABOUT ME...

I'm Sam. I'm in 10th grade. I love playing soccer and softball. I love the beach. When I'm done with school I want to become a marine biologist, but I'm terrified of drowning/deep water. I love the shows Psych and Bones.

PIN OAK

  1. Pin Oak
  2. Quercus palustrus
  3. The Pin Oak Sawfly (Caliroa lineata) feeds off of the tops of the leaves of the Pin Oak. Although the Pin Oak Sawfly prefers the Pin Oak, the bug will also eat the leaves of the Red and White Oak.
  4. The pin oak is the only known food source of the Bacculatrix domicola caterpillar. The fungus, Phytophthora ramorum, affect the pin oak and the white oak tree.
  5. The oak tree family members are the only trees to produce acorns. The Oak species is a tree that is native to the Northern Hemisphere.
  6. The Native Americans used the bark of the pin oak to treat intestinal pains. Today the pin oak is marketed as red oak but the wood is weaker than that of actual red oak.
  7. The twig of the pin oak is dark brown-red, slender, and has thorn like side shoots.
  8. The pin oak is native to eastern North America and Southern Ontario, Canada.

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Pin Oak Tree

References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quercus_palustris
http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/forestry/commontr/pinoak.htm
http://www.forestpests.org/northeast/pinoaksawfly.html


CEDAR

  1. Cedar
  2. Cedrus
  3. Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae is a fungus that affect Cedar trees and some apple trees.
  4. Cedars provide food for the Lepidoptera larvae.
  5. The Cedar is closely related to the Fir trees because they both have similiar cone structures.
  6. Cedar is used in some guitar sound boards. Cedars are also very popular ornamental plants.
  7. The shoots are dimorphic, with long shoots, which form the framework of the branches, and short shoots, which carry most of the leaves.
  8. The Cedar is native to the mountains of the western Himalayas and the Mediterranean.

external image 240px-View_from_the_Barouk_Forest_1.JPGexternal image 240px-View_from_the_Barouk_Forest_1.JPGexternal image 180px-Cedrus_atlantica2.jpg
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Cedar Picture from: http://en.
References: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceda

MY ORGANISM

Aurelia maritinus is creature with the characteristics of both a moon jellyfish and polar bear. This creature is found in the Artic Ocean. This creature has stinging cells that are used for self defense. Like both the moon jellyfish and the polar bear the Aurelia maritimus is carnivorous. It feeds on small creatures that share its habitat. The Aurelia maritinus has a heart that transfures oxygenated blood throughout the body. Gas exchange happens all other the body. The "skin" is called mesoglea, which is the jelly that most jellyfish are made of. The Aurelia maritinus also has a spinal column which, like the backbone in the polar bear, contains the spinal cord that sends messages to the brain. The Aurelia maritinus communicate by means of bioluminescense.
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CATALYST ACTIVITY
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It seems that the two meats, liver and ground beef, reacted to the H2O2 more. Liver probably contains the most enzymes because it has such a big role in the detoxification system.

As you can see from the results above the Liver reacted more the to H2O2 why is that?
The tissues contain the enzyme catalase. Catalase is produced by the body to break down Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a common by-product of metabolic reactions. In high concentration it is toxic; therefore, its accumulation in cells would be harmful. This enzyme breaks down hydrogen peroxide, which is a harmful by-product of the process of cellular respiration if it builds up in concentration in the cells. This is why the Hydrogen peroxide bubbles when it comes in contact with the Liver. Most tissues, however, contain the enzyme catalase, which catalyzes the breakdown of peroxide to water and oxygen. One of the main enzymes in Liver is Oxidase. Oxidase is any of a group of enzymes that catalyze oxidation, especially an enzyme that reacts with molecular oxygen to catalyze the oxidation of a substrate.

http://www.catalase.com/cataext.htm
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_would_happen_if_you_mixed_hydrogen_peroxide_and_liver

BIO MOLECULES ACTIVITY

Milk.png Groundbeef.png EggYolk.png



Because there was both absent and present for each food. I decided to go with what most groups said because chances are that the others did not see the same reaction whether it was due to a error in the experiment or just lack of attention. In most of the foods it was only one or two groups that didn't have the same result.



Questions:
What kinds of biomolecules are in each of the food substances you tested?
Proteins, and fats were present in the Ground Beef.

Do certain biomolecules have the same catalase reactions? Explain.
No for example only starches react with iodine, it turns black. Certain bio molecules react a certain way with certain chemicals.


What other results did you observe in the class that can be used to make a statement of what you have learned?
Certain bio molecules are present in certain foods. And it takes certain chemicals to detect certain bio molecules.




BIO MOLECULES WEBQUEST




A.
1. Explain how heat affects the rate of reaction.
The reactants move faster.
2. Explain how surface area affects the rate of reaction.
The reactants move slower if there is less surface area.
3. Explain how concentration affects the rate of reaction.
The reactants move faster in a higher concentration of molecules.

B.
1. What types of molecules make up enzymes?
Amino Acids
2. What determines the function of an enzyme?
The shape of the enzyme.
3. What is denaturing?
When high temperatures change the shape of the enzyme.
4. Describe how a reaction takes place without an enzyme and then with an enzyme.
Without enzymes things don’t line up and combine. With the enzyme the molecules quickly line up.
5. Explain how you think an enzyme might speed up a reaction.
It would take for ever for the molecules to come together at the right angle with out enzymes.
6. Explain why you think enzymes are so particular about reactions.
They are picky about the pH, the temperature, and the shape because that way reactions don't occur too much.
7. How is the shape of an enzyme important?
Certain shapes of enzymes match certain shapes of molecules. So molecules can fit in some enzymes and not others.
8. Explain how you know an enzyme is reusable.
Because enzymes help create polymers by linking two or more bio molecules together over and over again.
9. How does heating an enzyme affect its function?
Heating an enzyme will denature it. This means that the enzyme will change shape. If the enzyme changes shape it can’t be used anymore because no molecules will fit in it.
10. Does heating an enzyme always have the same effect when the catalyst needs to act on a substance? Explain.
Yes because when heat or acid is added it changes the shape of any enzyme. If the shape changes the enzyme can’t be used anymore.

C.
1. Explain the difference between hydrolysis and condensation (dehydration).
Hydrolysis is responsible for the break down on enzymes. In this reaction water needs to be added for any change to occur. In condensation enzymes are being built. This results in the polymer and a molecule of water.
2. Which molecules from our labs undergo these reactions?
Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acid and Carbs.

D.
1. What are proteins made of?
Amino Acids
2. What chemical process creates the proteins?
Condensation reactions
3. Describe how proteins are made in detail. Sketch a picture.
Ribosomes line up the amino acids and makes one peptide bond at a time and when a peptide bond is formed a water molecule is released. And then a protein is made.


E.

1. Describe step by step how your body breaks down carbohydrates. Make sure to specify the function of each organ during the steps.
Enzymes in your body help break down carbs into glucose.
2. The glucose is then absorbed in the small intestine into the bloodstream.
Because the glucose channels are closed, glucose cannot enter muscle or fat cells. When the glucose level rises the pancreas detects it and pumps insulin into the blood stream. The insulin unlocks the channels and glucose goes in and is burned for energy. When the pancreas detects the low glucose levels it closes the channels again.

F.

1. How is fat digested? How is this different from carbohydrates? Be sure to discuss the organs, substances, and enzyme responsible.
Fat taken in the diet is digested in the Small Intestine with the aid of Bile acids and salts which act as emulsifiers and break down the larger fat droplets into smaller ones. These are then eaten "lipases" which are secreted in the intestinal digestive juices.

G.
1. How do heart attacks occur?
When plaque builds up in the arteries it cuts off a section of the heart muscle.

H.
1. Describe in your own words using any of the images from the above link and draw a picture that describes proteins (do not copy and paste from images):
1. Primary structure - chain of amino acids (beaded necklace)
2. Secondary structure - Primary structures linked together by a hydrogen bond. Can be a Pleated Sheet or Alpha Helix. (zig-zag line)
3. Tertiary structure - When Pleated Sheets and Alpha Helixes attract. (a tube that's messed up)
4. Quarternary structure -
Made of one or two amino acid chains. (two tubes tangled together)

NHGRI_talk_dictionary_protein_structure.jpg


LIGHT INTENSITY ACTIVITY

Answer the following question as a group: What are the best possible conditions for making the maximum of ATP?
Higher light intensity and a shorter wavelength.
Hypothesize what values you believe are the best conditions (what wavelength and light intensity creates the most ATP.)

200 – light intensity 425 – wavelength. This was the best result. As you can see below it gave us 100% maximal ATP. From this we can conclude that higher light intensity and a shorter wavelength produce the most ATP.




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Homework: Create a data table that outlines % maximal ATP, ATP created in your time frame used, light intensity, and wavelength. You can also take screen shots while it is in action and display your data in a graph or other ways if desired.

Percent of Maximal ATP
Light Intensity
Wavelength

400
500
600
700
40
13%
1.50%
4%
1%
60
19.50%
2.20%
6%
1.50%
80
26%
3%
8%
2%
100
32.50%
3.80%
10%
2.50%
120
39%
4.50%
12%
3%
140
45.50%
5.30%
14%
3.50%
160
52%
6%
16%
4.50%
180
58.50%
6.80%
18%
4.50%
200
65%
7.50%
20%
5%


Number of ATP
Light Intensity
Wavelength

400
500
600
700
40
1
1
1
1
60
1
1
1
1
80
2
1
1
1
100
2
1
1
1
120
3
1
1
1
140
3
1
1
1
160
3
1
1
1
180
3
1
1
1


Research background information about
Light intensity – The amount of photons in the light contribute to the intensity level. To find light intensity you must divide the power by the solid angles of the light. The farther the light is from an object, the more surface area is lit. Like intensity decreases as distance from the source increases. Light intensity influences the manufacture of plant food, stem length, leaf color, and flowering. A geranium grown in low light tends to be spindly and the leaves light green in color. At lower intensities the plant doesn’t grow as well because light in the process of photosynthesis.
Wavelength and energy – the color of the light depends on the wavelength.
Pigment colors – pigment is any substance that absorbs light. Chlorophyll absorbs all wavelengths except green light. But it reflects it back at out eyes, which is why they are green. Black pigments absorb all colors. White pigments reflect all light. Each pigment has different absorption spectra.

Explain the following:
How wavelength and light intensity is important for photosynthesis. Be certain to completely relate these to the light reaction and what you observed in the simulation.
A summary of what you learned through the simulation. You can discuss using paragraphs, data tables or pictures (include a brief statement as well).

Chlorophyll in the plants absorbs light energy. Although chlorophyll can absorb all colors of light EXCEPT green. This is why plants are green, because the green light that is not absorbed is reflected back to your eye. Now you are probably wondering why I said green light. Well white light (the light you see) is a combination of red, yellow, orange, blue, green, and violet light. Light color depends on the wavelength. Shorter wavelengths tend to be like red or orange, while longer wavelengths would be like blue or violet. Light intensity is important in photosynthesis because photosynthesis is more active in plants that sit in brighter light. This occurs because more light reaches the chlorophyll.

This will not be due for several days and we will discuss related information in class and in activities that will help you understand the material.


PHOTOSYNTHESIS WEBQUEST


Photosynthesis is considered by many to be the most important process to occur on earth. To learn about photosynthesis, complete the
"Photosynthesis Webquest" (Each team member needs to complete the webquest on their own web page).
Visit www.ftexploring.com then use the photosynthesis links to answer the following questions.

1. What is photosynthesis?

When plants make sugar out of air, water, and sunlight.
2. What types of organisms carry out photosynthesis? List 3 groups.
Green plants, Bacteria, and Algae.
3. What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis? What is the translation for the chemical equation?
6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Carbon dioxide + Water + Light energy → Glucose + Oxygen
4. Look at your equation in number 3 and answer the following questions:
a. What are the raw materials or reactants needed to carry out photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide, water, and light energy.
b. What are the products of photosynthesis?
Glucose and oxygen
c. What energy source is needed in the reaction?
Light energy.
5. Consider a plant as the photosynthetic organism.
a. In what part of the plant does photosynthesis occur?

Thylakoid
b. What specific cells are involved?
Mesophyll cells
c. What specific organelle is involved?
Chloroplast
6. How does the plant get the raw materials needed for photosynthesis to the plant part where photosynthesis occurs?
Water is transported to the leaves through xylem cells present in the stem or through stomata incase of land plants. Carbon dioxide also enters the leaf through the stoma present on the leaf.
7. What is a stoma and of what value is the stoma to the plant in its efforts to carry out photosynthesis?
The stoma is the name for the holes that air comes through and goes out. The carbon dioxide that is absorbed through the stoma is needed for photosynthesis to occur. And oxygen is released as a product.
8. Explore the organelle that is responsible for the process of photosynthesis. What are found inside the organelle and how do these parts aid in the process of photosynthesis?
Chloroplast. In the chloroplast is the membrane envelope. It holds the chloroplast together. Thylakoids capture light and make the energy that is needed for photosynthesis. The stroma are also located in the chloroplast. They take the light energy from the thylakoids and make carbohydrates.
9. What is the first part of photosynthesis called and where does it occur?
The first step is light dependant reaction. Which is when the light energy is converted to chemical energy.
10. What exactly happens in the first part of photosynthesis?
In this process light energy is converted into chemical energy, in the form of the energy-carriers ATP.
11. What is the second part of photosynthesis called and where does it happen?
Light-Dependent Reactions. They occur in the stroma of the chloroplast.
12. What happens in the second part of photosynthesis?
Carbon Dioxide is reduced by the ATP.
13. Are the two parts of photosynthesis connected? If so, explain the connection.
The ATP that is needed to reduce the carbon dioxide, is produced in the first step.
14. Does the chemical equation that you listed in number 3 tell the entire story of the process of photosynthesis? Why or why not?
No because it doesn’t show that light was used in the actual equation. Otherwise it has everything.

RESPIRATION WEBQUEST



Academic Biology
Glucose metabolism questions
http://www.siue.edu/%7Ectheodo/index_files/04_A01_01i.swf
http://www.phschool.com/science/biology_place/biocoach/cellresp/intro.html
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/summer2002/lect10.htm
http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/BiologicalSciences/Faculty/DMeyer/respiration.html

  1. What is the primary source of energy for the cell?
ATP *from burning glucose.
  1. How does the cell produce a continual supply of energy?
Cellular Respiration *a slow break down of glucose to make a small amount of energy.
  1. What places in the cell does cellular respiration occur?
Mitochondria and the Cytoplasm.
  1. What is the first phase of respiration called and where does it occur?
Glycolysis - Cytoplasm
  1. Describe the products made in glycolysis.
Glycolysis are NADH, 2 pyruvate, and ATP molecules.
  1. What two pathways does pyruvate take after glycolysis? What conditions allow it to happen each way?
If there is oxygen it takes cellular respiration. If oxygen isn’t present then it takes fermentation.
  1. If oxygen is available, discuss the changes in pyruvate and the products created. What is this process called?
It creates metabolism. The process is the Krebs Cycle.
  1. Discuss the events in the electron transport chain.
They pump protons into the membrane of the enzyme. Then when the protons flow through the enzyme ATP synthrose which releases energy.
  1. How many ATP are produced from the complete breakdown of glucose in oxygen?
36 *38 for prokaryotes
  1. What are the two electron carriers called?
NADH and FADH2
  1. How is fermentation similar to glycolysis?
They both lead the production of energy.
  1. How is fermentation different from glycolysis?
Glycolysis make pyruvate.
  1. Give 3 example of fermentation.
Ethanol, Lactic acid, and Alcohol.
  1. How are the photosynthesis and respiration equations related?
They both have CO2 and H2O. *They are opposites.
  1. Why are fats such a good source of energy? (Note: this needs to be related to ATP)
Fats are a good source of energy because there are more calories in them, which makes ATP productivity increase, and ATP is energy. *There are a lot of bonds.



FERMENTATION LAB ANALYSIS

Analysis:**
1. State 2 clear, concise conclusions derived from the analysis of the results from the experiments in your class.
The more sugar, the more gas produced.
Yeast can become active with as little as 3% sugar.

2. What was the dependent and independent variables in the experiment? Explain.
The independent variable the gases produced. And the dependent variables were the sugar water and the yeast.
3. According to the experimental data, what kind of environment do yeast prefer? How did the sugar concentration change the result? Explain.
Yeast prefer warm, moist environments. The more sugar that was present gave the yeast more energy to produced more gas.
4. How did the amount of rising change with the different types of sugar solutions used?
The higher percent of sugar present created a higher circumference.
5. What kind of respiration did the yeast carry out in the experiment? Explain.
Anaerobic because the yeast didn’t require oxygen.



EXERCISE AND CELL RESPIRATION

  1. What are telomeres? What is the relationship between telomere length and exercise?
A telomere is located at the end of a chromosome. It keeps the ends together. More exercise = longer telomeres.
  1. Besides making your body a better machine, what are the obvious benefits of exercise?
Exercise makes you feel better. And it influences the aging process.
  1. One article suggests "Some research suggests that exercise can reduce levels of inflammation and free radicals,". What does this mean?
This just means that by exercising you can help protect your body from lots of bad things that aren’t good for you.
  1. Physical inactivity has been associated with what medical problems?
Obesity and heart disease.
  1. What changes happen in the body as you start to exercise? (not outward changes, but what the body does to adjust to your exercising).
Your heart rate increases. The arteries and veins dilate. And the nervous system secretes hormones telling the arteries and veins to dilate.
  1. How does aerobic exercise affect the circulatory and respiratory systems?
The chambers in your heart get bigger, the muscle thickens so your heart starts to pump oxygen to the active muscles more efficiently. Your breathing will increase as the body needs more oxygen.
  1. How does anaerobic training benefit the body?
It increases your metabolism.
  1. How does aerobic exercise and weight training affect the heart differently?
The heart becomes stronger to it can pump more oxygenated blood to the body. And it lowers your risk for heart disease.
  1. How do muscles adapt to aerobic training and weight training?
The muscles get stronger and bigger, so that they can adapt to the new stress that aerobic exercise puts on them.
  1. How does exercise affect the resting heart rate?
It lowers it.
  1. How does exercise affect blood pressure?
It lowers it.
  1. How does exercise affect the way fat is utilized by the body?
More exercise = more fat that is burned.
  1. Does exercise reduce the number of infections? Why?
Exercise helps increase the production of macrophages, which fight off bacteria and viruses.
  1. How does exercise affect the body composition (ratio of muscle to fat)?
Muscle increases and fat decreases
  1. What is meant by cardiovascular fitness and what does it mean?
The capacity of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen-rich blood to the working muscles and the capacity of the muscles to use oxygen to produce energy .
  1. Exercise has been used by the following countries in what capacity?
China: about 1% of the population exercise regularly.
India: Girls from India were the most active, with 37 percent meeting exercise recommendations.
Persia:
Greece:
Prevalence of physical activity and exercise in Greece was found to be low in the 1990s and 2000s, both in absolute and comparable terms. However, recent data reveal the development of a more active profile. The main reasons for participation were health, weight control, fitness and stress management, while lack of time was the main perceived barrier.
Rome:

  1. What are the three types of activities and their benefit?
Endurance, Flexibility, and Strength Training.
  1. How does exercise affect the development and progression of diabetes?
It lowers the risk. And it lowers blood sugar and insulin sensitivity levels.
  1. What is a metabolic myopathy, what does it cause, and how is it treated (or managed and lived with)?
Metabolic myopathies are Myopathies that result from defects in biochemical metabolism that primarily affect muscle. Treatments range from drug therapy for muscular dystrophies and inflammatory myopathies to avoiding situations that work the muscles too hard for metabolic myopathies. Some physicians recommend that patients with myopathy keep their weight down (a lighter body demands less work from the muscles) and avoid overexerting the muscles.
  1. How does arsenic interfere with ATP production?
It disrupts the electron transport chain.




DNA REPLICATION PROJECT



Red: Adenine
Blue: Thymine
Yellow: Guanine
Green: Cytosine

Step 1: Enzymes unwind the DNA.
Step 2: DNA polymerase breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the two halves of the DNA together.
Step 3: The left side gets a new right side (new phosphates, sugars, and bases).
Step 4: The right side gets a new left side (new phosphates, sugars and bases).
DNA replication process occurs during interphase.


CELL PORTFOLIO
CAT.jpg

http://www.flickr.com/photos/48688827@N02/4564942263/

*Abbi and I did this together. I created this image and she created the other. But they go together.

GENETIC VARIATION


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