Group Members
AshleyS
KaitlynR
KourtneyP

foul water lab



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1. What percentage of water did you recover? (how much of your original sample?)
2. Which filtration step lost the most water? Why do you think so?
3. List substances from our homes and nature that must be cleaned from the water. List as many as your group can name.
4. Is it possible to retrieve 100% of water even if mostly clean water is filtered? Why or why not?

1. 1.6666....
2. Sand/Gravel filter. I think so because we lost 30% of water and the other one; we lost 10% of the water.
3. chlorine, sand, rust, dirt, pebbles,
4. no, because there is no way you can get the water completely clean.

Water Source(Activity A):

1.China, India and the United States
2. It's color coated and so are the countries and it had information in a bar graph.. you can understand it better and it's easier to read.
3. Yeah the countries that use the most water also have the largest populations..


Water sources:

The things people use water for is to get a bath, flush the toilet, wash dishes, wash clothes, wash hands, drink, water plants, wash car, make gas, cool down your car if it overheats, swimming, surfing, boating, sailing, and it's important to us because it keeps us hydrated.

Water Source(Activity B):

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Create a chart to list all the places water is located using the following headings: Fresh water, Salt water, Locked water

Answer the following questions:
  1. How much water is found in each of these? Use the chart located on this site: http://www.swivel.com/graphs/show/20068274 and determine how much water there is in all the places listed above if the total water on the Earth is 1,386,000,000 cubic kilometers. 7.21%
  2. What percent of the total water on Earth is fresh water? 1.74%
  3. What percent of the FRESH WATER is found frozen in ice? 68.9%
  4. What sources of fresh water are found on the surface of the Earth? Rivers, Lakes, Swamp water
  5. Which sources can humans most easily obtain their water? Ground water
  6. To get an idea of the water we can actually use, look at this site: http://www.circleofblue.org/waternews/2008/science-tech/all-the-water-in-the-world/ Why is this a problem for the human population (and all the other organisms in the world?) There is more salt water than fresh water and than the rest is frozen.

Water Source(Activity C):

1. More water evaporates than what we use.
2. Precipitation(110,000 km3)
3. Yes, it is possible to run out of water because there are more people you would have to share your water with and people waste a lot more water than they need to.
4. China, India and the United States are the parts of the world that are most populated. No, these areas are not the areas of the world with a lot of water.


Google Earth & Our Watershed:

1)The higher the elevation, the less possible


Bottled Water Research:

Don't Drink Bottled Water

1) Message: It can cause cancer
How: The Chemicals(Bisphenol A or BPA) are inside the water and they can get into the water and when you drink it, it will stay in your body and spread cancer.

2) Message: It cost too much for just one bottle
How: You can pay $0.50 for generic water jugs purchased in a store and when you keep getting them, it can go to 100's of dollars in just 1 year.

3) Message: You can pay more than twice as much for bottled water than you pay per gallon for gas for your car.
How: Bottled water is about $5.52 per gallon

4) Message: If bottles are not reused or recycled, they cause a waste disposal problem.
How: They are mostly dumped in landfills and water and take up a lot of space.
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East Central Mountains(Pennsylvania):

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1. Do the two five-year graphs provide enough information for you to discover the "normal" temperature and precipitation levels for your region each December? Describe your reasoning.
Yes, because the temperature gets colder.


2. What other information could you use to characterize the climate?
Air, Temperature, oxygen levels, precipitation.


3. Choose another 5 year period from any other set of years. How do the temperature and rainfall vary between this time period versus the first one that you looked at?
There is a lot more rainfall and the temperature also is higher. They are also further away from the average.

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Questions on the lakes:

1. What factors need to be considered before stocking a lake?
Oxygen and Temperature

2. What social and economic issues are related to stocking?
Economic: It helps small local businesses.
Social: It’s a way for people to get together for enjoyment or entertainment.


3. What can happen if a lake is "incorrectly" stocked?
All the trout will die from not being in the correct environment. They won’t have enough food to go around and they will also die that way too.


4. Construct a graph of the concentration of oxygen at each depth for each season and describe the pattern you see. Now add the temperature data to the graphs you have constructed.


5. Do you observe declining oxygen levels with increasing temperature in any of your graphs?
Yes.

6. Create graphs for each season showing the temperature and dissolved oxygen profiles.

7. Based on the data you have collected, would lake trout succeed in Ice Lake? Explain how you have arrived at your conclusion.
No because, there is not enough oxygen.

8. If you found habitat limitations for lake trout because of low oxygen levels or temperatures that are too high, would you expect these conditions to persist through times of the year for which you do not have data? Why or why not?
Yes because, the seasons change to spring, summer, fall, and winter.


9. Explain why you would or would not recommend the Ice Lake Association should attempt to stock lake trout?
I don’t think that the Ice Lake Association should attempt to stock lake trout because, the water would be to cold and they would be used to it. Which would cause all the trout to die.

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I predict that this winter is going to be a wet and warm winter and be a La Nina year because, La Nina is a periodic cooling of ocean surface temperatures in the central/cast central that occurs ever 3-5 years and the cool phase of the cycle is sometimes referred to as a Pacific cold episode{2*C-3.5*C(4*F-6*F)} or {1*C-3*C(2*F-6*F)}


What causes indoor air pollution?


What causes these pollutants?

  • RADON - It is caused by the radioactive decay of uranium, which occurs naturally in the Earth. It is most concentrated in porous soils overlying rocks that contain uranium. Radon can make its way into a house, where it adheres to dust particles. When people inhale the dust, radon enters the lungs.

  • RESPIRABLE PARTICLES -
  • SECONDHAND SMOKE -
  • VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS -


What health effects are caused by these pollutants?


  • RADON - Causes Lung Cancer in smokers and nonsmokers.

  • RESPIRABLE PARTICLES - It causes asthma, lung cancer, cardiovascular issues, and premature death.

  • SECONDHAND SMOKE -
  • VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS -



What can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?

  • RADON - The type of foundation that your house has will affect the radon pollutants in your house. Radon is usually reduce by subslab suction for houses that have slab-on-grade foundations. Crawlspace ventilation lowers indoor radon levels both by reducing the homeOs suction on the soil and by diluting the radon beneath the house. You can cover the earth floor with a heavy plastic sheet to reduce radon in crawlspaces. A vent pipe and fan are used to draw the radon from under the sheet and vent it to the outdoors. Other radon reduction techniques that can be used in any type of house include sealing cracks in the foundation and natural ventilation.

  • RESPIRABLE PARTICLES -
  • SECONDHAND SMOKE -
  • VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS


What causes these pollutants
Lead- is a heavy metal that was used for centuries in all manner of household products and building materials.
Nitrogen Dioxide- is a nasty- smelling gas; nitrogen dioxide is formed naturally in the atmosphere by lighting and some is produced by plants, soil and water; it contributes to the formation of photochemical smog.
Stoves, Heaters, Fireplaces, and Chimneys- combustion gases and particles
2. What health effects are caused by these pollutants?
Carbon Monoxide symptoms are nausea, serious headaches, unconsciousness, and death
Lead effects- headaches, muscle, joint weakness or pain, excessive tiredness or lethargy, others are hobbyists working with stained glass windows and those who work in the manufacturing or recycling of car batteries.
Nitrogen Dioxide-eye, nose, and throat irritation; increased respiratory infections in young children.
Stoves, Heaters, Fireplaces, and Chimneys- released when fuels are incompletely burned it can lodge in the lungs and irritate or damage lung tissue; radon and benzo pyrene both of which can cause cancer of small particles that are inhaled and then carried deep into the lung.
3. What can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
Carbon Monoxide can be reduce by keeping gas appliances properly adjusted; use proper fuel in kerosene space heaters; Install and use an exhaust fan vented to outdoors over the gas stoves; open flues when fireplaces and in use; do not idle the car inside garage.
Lead- taking paint off the wall.
Nitrogen Dioxide reduce of indoors- consider purchasing a vented space heater when replacing an un-vented one; use proper fuel in kerosene space heater; have a trained professional inspect, clean, and tune- up central heating system; do not idle the car inside garage.
Stoves, heaters, fireplaces, chimneys- Take special precautions when operating fuel- burning unvented space heaters; Install and use exhaust fans over gas cooking stoves and ranges and keep the burners properly adjusted; keep woodstove emissions to a minimum; blocked, leaking, or damaged chimneys of flues release harmful combustion gases and particles and ever fatal concentrations of carbon monoxide.

Junkyard Activity