Group members


Paige W
Morgan T
Karissa R




Foul water lab:


We used a dropper to get most of the oil out of the water. Then we made a sand/gravel filter to get the big objects out. We used charcoal to get the bacteria out. then we made a funnel out of filter paper and put it in a funnel to get the charcoal out.
When we first started the color of the water was brown, then it went to yellow, and not its clear.


1. we lost 43% of the water after cleaning it.
2. filtering it by using the filters because it took out most of the dirt and other products that were in our water.
3. chlorine, lead, arsenic
4.no, because after you filter it, you lose less water from taking the dirt, and other minerals that are in the water.

Water source activity A:

1. Which countries are the largest consumers of water?
- China, India, and US.
2. How is this map different from other world maps? How is displaying the data this way better than a regular chart?
-Its the same thing but it shows water usage. It shows the regions where the most and least water usage is.
3. Do the countries that use the most water also have the largest populations? Do those that use the least have the least populations? Give two examples for each.
-We think they use the same amount of water. No matter how big a population is they still use water for the same things.

Water sources:

What do we use water for?
-Hygiene, drinks, animals, cooking, cars, clothing, plants, religious ceremonies, agriculture, toilets, hydro power, energy(water is a coolant), irrigation, recreation, machines, making everything, etc. Biggest users are to make everything, energy, and making machines.

What are some examples of competing activities for different types of living areas:
Large city-
Small city-
Suburbs-

Activity B:

How does the amount of water today compare with that of the past or the future?
-The past had more water, but there weren't good filters. In the future there will be less water.
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1.How much water is found in each of these?
-Oceans=96.5%, Ice caps and Glaciers=1.74%, Groundwater= 1.7%, Groundwater and Permaf.=0.022%, Lakes=0.013%, Atmosphere=0.001%, Soil moisture=0.001%, Swamp water=0.0008%, Rivers=0.0002%, Biological water=0.0001%, Freshwater=2.5%, Saltwater=97.5%
2. What percent of the total water on Earth is fresh water?
-3% of the water on earth is fresh water.
3.1.74%
4.what sources of fresh water are found on the surface of the earth?
-river, lakes, streams, ponds.
5. which sources can humans most easily obtain their water?
-ground water, lakes and rivers.
6.why is this a problem for the human population (and all other organisms in the world?)
-saltwater- 97.5%, freshwater is 2.5%,glaciers and snowcover= 68.9%, accesssible 0.3% to humanity, groundwater= 30.8%


Activity C:


1. the area of internal runoff well there is a lake and the water goes up to the sky which is called evaporation and goes down to precipitation and goes down to the groundwater flow which ends up in the ocean, then from there it goes up evaporation and down as precipitation in the ocean again. to put it in an easy was, the water goes around like a circle.
2. precipitation, evaporation, and at last, groundwater.
3.yes, because the fresh water is changing into salt water, and we human people cant drink salt water, or else we would die.
4. north America, south America, Europe, Asia.


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Google Earth and our watershed:

1.Population gets bigger around the smaller streams, small streams are mostly in the plains, but some are in the high elevation areas.

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2.In 1990, there was more cropland, a lot of forestry,a lot of grassland, very little urban areas. In 2009,there is a lot more grassland and the grassland took away forestry.
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3. It would be better to use state divides, so you know where your water is going to be like.

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Water PSA

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Northwest Plateau


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This graph shows the rising and decreasing temperatures in the Northwest Plateau in Pennsylvania.
1. Do the two five-year graphs provide enough information for you to discover the "normal" temperature and precipitation levels for your region each December? Describe your reasoning.
-Yes, The lines on the graphs show that the temperature decreases when its December.

2. What other information could you use to characterize the climate?
-How it increases and decreases.

3. Choose another 5 year period from any other set of years. How do the temperature and rainfall vary between this time period versus the first one that you looked at?
-They are basically the same.

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This second graph was compared to the other one above. To show how they are different, But they are somewhat the same.


Project oh Buoy

Questions:
1. Will this year be an el nino year or a la nina year?
--- The graphs decrease so this year would be a La Nina.

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5s 180w

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Air Pollution Activity 4


What causes indoor air pollution?
- Inadequate ventilation, High temperature and humidity levels

Using this site: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/ia-intro.html
Work in teams to identify the 12 pollutants listed. In your group, you need to cover all 12 pollutants. Take notes on each of these points and put the information on your team page.
  1. What causes these pollutants?
-Heaters, stoves ovens, cleaning products, building things for house
2.What health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and humidifer fever
3.What can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
-air filters

Activity 5

Studying air pollution in and around school

http://content.usatoday.com/news/nation/environment/smokestack/index

What are the sources of indoor air pollution?
-cancer causing toxins

Where does particulate pollution come from?
-Boiler

12 pollutants


Asbestos


1.What causes these pollutants?
-a mineral that can be used in construction for insulation and fire-retardant.

2.What health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-lung cancer,mesothelioma, and asbestosis.

3.What can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
- leave the material alone, used trained or qualifiers construction workers, and follow proper procedures.


Biological pollutants

1.What causes these pollutants?
-bacteria, molds, mildew, viruses, animal dander, cat saliva, house dust, mites, cockroaches.

2.What health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-hypersensitivity pneumonitis, allergic rhinitis, and some types of asthma. Infectious illnesses, such as influenza, measles, and chicken pox are transmitted through the air. Molds and mildews release disease-causing toxins. Symptoms of health problems caused by biological pollutants include sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, shortness of breath, dizziness, lethargy, fever, and digestive problems.

3.What can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
- use humidifiers, ventilate the attic to prevent moisture build up, keep the house clean.

Carbon Monoxide

1.What causes these pollutants?
-its an odorless, colorless toxic fume caused by gas appliances,furnaces, chimneys etc.

2.What health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-The symptoms include headaches, dizziness, disorientation, nausea and fatigue. The effects of carbon monoxide exposure can vary from person to person depending on age, overall health and the concentration and length of exposure.

3.What can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
-Keep gas appliances properly adjusted. Consider purchasing a vented space heater when replacing an unvented one. Use proper fuel in kerosene space heaters. Install and use an exhaust fan vented to outdoors over gas stoves. Open flues when fireplaces are in use. Make certain that doors on all wood stoves fit tightly. Repair any leaks promptly.Don't idle the car inside garage.


Lead

1. what causes these pollutants?
-when paint is improperly removed from surfaces by dry scraping, sanding or open flame, or soldering, stained glass making.

2. what health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-effects all systems of the body, can cause death, kidney and blood cells, mental and physical development.

3. what can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
-keep are's dust free, buy paint that doesn't have lead in it, do not remove lead paint yourself, eat a balanced diet.

Nitrogen dioxide


1. what causes these pollutants?
- kerosene heaters, un-vented gas stoves, and heaters. environmental tobacco smoke

2.what health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-eye, nose and throat irritation, may cause impaired lung function and increased respiratory infections in young children

3. what can be don't to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
-adjust gas appliances properly, vet space heater, clean and inspect heating system, don't idle car in garage

Pesticides

1.what causes these pollutants?
-products to kill household pests, lawn products.

2.what health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-irritation to eye, nose and throat, damage to central nervous system and kidney, increased risk of cancer.

3.what can be dont to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
-apply pest products only in areas they are seen, limikt it, select brand carefully and keep indoor spaces clean.

Radon

1.What causes these pollutants?
-Smoking, second hand smoke.

2.what health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-Causes lung cancer

3.what can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
-stop smoking and don't be around smokers when they are smoking.

Respirable Particles
1. What causes these pollutants?
-Fireplaces, wood stoves, and kerosene heaters.

2.
What health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-Eye, nose, and throat irritation; respiratory infections and bronchitis; lung cancer.

3. What can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
-Vent all furnaces to outdoors, Choose properly sized woodstoves, make certain that doors on all woodstoves fit tightly, Have a trained professional inspect, clean, and tune-up central heating system annually, Repair any leaks properly, Change filters on central heating and cooling systems and air cleaners according to manufacturer's directions.



Secondhand Smoke/ Environmental Tabacco Smoke
1. What causes these pollutants?
-Tobacco.

2.
What health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-Asthma, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, pneumonia and bronchitis, and middle ear infections, lung cancer.

3. What can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
-Don't smoke indoors.



Stoves, heaters, fireplaces, and chimneys.

1. What causes these pollutants?
-Unvented kerosene and gas space heaters, woodstoves, fireplaces, and gas stoves.

2.
What health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-Headaches, dizziness, weakness, nausea, confusion, and disorientation,. Fatigue in healthy people and episodes of increased chest pain in people with chronic heart disease, risk of respiratory infection, and asthma.

3. What can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?
-Take special precautions when operating fuel-burning unvented space heaters.


Volatile Organic Compounds

1. What causes these pollutants?
-Paints and lacquers, paint strippers, cleaning supplies, pesticides, building materials and furnishings, office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper, graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers, and photographic solutions.

2.
What health effects are caused by these pollutants?
-Eye, nose, and throat irritation; headaches, loss of coordination, nausea; damage to liver, kidney, and central nervous system. Some organics can cause cancer in animals and humans.

3. What can be done to reduce the amount of these pollutants indoors?

-Use household products according to manufacturer's directions, Make sure you provide plenty of fresh air when using these products, Throw away unused or little-used containers safely; buy in quantities that you will use soon, Keep out of reach of children and pets, Never mix household care products unless directed on the label.

Junkyard Activity: Activity one